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How to Keep Your Eyes Healthy in 5 steps

keep your eyes healthy

Don’t take your eyes for granted. Take these easy steps to keep your peepers healthy.

1. Eat Well: Good eye health starts with the food on your plate. Nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, zinc, and vitamins C and E might help ward off age-related vision problems like macular degeneration and cataracts. To get them, fill your plate with:

    Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, and collards;

    Salmon, tuna, and other oily fish;

    Eggs, nuts, beans, and other nonmeat protein sources;

    Oranges and other citrus fruits or juices;

    Oysters and pork.

    A well-balanced diet also helps you stay at a healthy weight. That lowers your odds of obesity and related diseases like type 2 diabetes, which is the leading cause of blindness in adults.

2. Quit Smoking: It makes you more likely to get cataracts, damage to your optic nerve, and macular degeneration, among many other medical problems. If you’ve tried to kick the habit before only to start again, keep at it. The more times you try to quit, the more likely you are to succeed.

3. Wear Sunglasses: The right pair of shades will help protect your eyes from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Too much UV exposure boosts your chances of cataracts and macular degeneration. Choose a pair that blocks 99% to 100% of UVA and UVB rays. Wraparound lenses help protect your eyes from the side.

Polarized lenses reduce glare while you drive, but don’t necessarily offer added protection. If you wear contact lenses, some offer UV protection. It’s still a good idea to wear sunglasses for an extra layer.

4. Look Away from the Computer Screen: Staring at a computer or phone screen for too long can cause:

    Eyestrain, Blurry vision,

    Trouble focusing at a distance,

    Dry eyes,


    Neck, back, and shoulder pain.

    To protect your eyes: Make sure your glasses or contacts prescription is up to date and good for looking at a computer screen;

    Move the screen so your eyes are level with the top of the monitor. That lets you look slightly down at the screen;

    Try to avoid glare from windows and lights. Use an anti-glare screen if needed;

    Choose a comfortable, supportive chair. Position it so that your feet are flat on the floor;

    If your eyes are dry, blink more or try using artificial tears;

    Rest your eyes every 20 minutes. Look 20 feet away for 20 seconds. Get up at least every 2 hours and take a 15-minute break.

5. Visit Your Eye Doctor Regularly: Everyone needs a regular eye exam, even young children. It helps protect your sight and lets you see your best. Eye exams can also find diseases, like glaucoma, that have no symptoms.

It’s important to spot them early on, when they’re easier to treat. A comprehensive eye exam might include:

Talking about your personal and family medical history;

Vision tests to see if you’re near sighted, farsighted, have an astigmatism (a curved cornea that blurs vision), or presbyopia (age-related vision changes);

Tests to see how well your eyes work together;

Eye pressure and optic nerve tests to check for glaucoma;

External and microscopic examination of your eyes before and after dilation.


Ask your friendly RingPharm Pharmacist:

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Many people don’t understand why or how other people become addicted to drugs. They may mistakenly think that those who use drugs lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop their drug use simply by choosing to. In reality, drug addiction is a complex disease, and quitting usually takes more than good intentions or a strong will. Drugs change the brain in ways that make quitting hard, even for those who want to. Fortunately, researchers know more than ever about how drugs affect the brain and have found treatments that can help people recover from drug addiction and lead productive lives.


Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug seeking and use that is compulsive, or difficult to control, despite harmful consequences. The initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people, but repeated drug use can lead to brain changes that challenge an addicted person’s self-control and interfere with their ability to resist intense urges to take drugs. These brain changes can be persistent, which is why drug addiction is considered a “relapsing” disease – people in recovery from drug use disorders are at increased risk for returning to drug use even after years of not taking the drug.


Most drugs affect the brain’s “reward circuit,” causing euphoria as well as flooding it with the chemical messenger dopamine. A properly functioning reward system motivates a person to repeat behaviours needed to thrive, such as eating and spending time with loved ones. Surges of dopamine in the reward circuit cause the reinforcement of pleasurable but unhealthy behaviours like taking drugs, leading people to repeat the behaviour again and again.

As a person continues to use drugs, the brain adapts by reducing the ability of cells in the reward circuit to respond to it. This reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drug – an effect known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug to try and achieve the same high. These brain adaptations often lead to the person becoming less and less able to derive pleasure from other things they once enjoyed, like food, sex, or social activities.

Can drug addiction be cured or prevented? As with most other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, treatment for drug addiction generally isn’t a cure. However, addiction is treatable and can be successfully managed. People who are recovering from an addiction will be at risk for relapse for years and possibly for their whole lives. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medicines with behavioural therapy ensures the best chance of success for most patients. Treatment approaches tailored to each patient’s drug use patterns and any co-occurring medical, mental, and social problems can lead to continued recovery.

More good news is that drug use and addiction are preventable. Results from RECENT research have shown that prevention programs involving families, schools, communities, and the media are effective for preventing or reducing drug use and addiction. Although personal events and cultural factors affect drug use trends, when young people view drug use as harmful, they tend to decrease their drug taking. Therefore, education and outreach are key in helping people understand the possible risks of drug use. Teachers, parents, and health care providers have crucial roles in educating young people and preventing drug use and addiction.

Speak to your friendly RingPharm Pharmacist:

Source: http://kk publishers

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Hypertension is the leading preventable cause of death and disability around the world, and can lead to heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and dementia.


The first step in understanding high blood pressure is learning what your numbers mean. Blood pressure is measured with two numbers: systolic (the higher number) and diastolic (the lower number) (e.g., 120/80 mmHg):

·         Systolic pressure occurs when your heart contracts.

·         Diastolic pressure occurs when your heart relaxes and fills with blood.

·         Blood pressure is measured using millimetres of mercury (mmHg), which is a standardized measurement of pressure.

·         The higher your systolic or diastolic blood pressure – and the longer it stays high – the greater the potential damage to your blood vessels.

Your blood pressure should be less than 140/90 mmHg.

 Low Risk: Less than 120/80 mmHg

Moderate Risk: 121/80 to 139/89 mmHg

Elevated Risk: More than 140/90 mmHg

If you have diabetes, you are more likely to have high blood pressure. It should be less than 130/80 mmHg.

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death.

Blood pressure is the force that a person’s blood exerts against the walls of their blood vessels. This pressure depends on the resistance of the blood vessels and how hard the heart has to work. Almost half of all adults in the United States have high blood pressure, but many are not aware of this fact.

Hypertension is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and aneurysm. Keeping blood pressure under control is vital for preserving health and reducing the risk of these dangerous conditions.

Management and treatment:Lifestyle adjustments are the standard, first-line treatment for hypertension. We outline some recommendations here:

Regular physical exercise: People can measure blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. Current guidelines recommend that all people, including those with hypertension, engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity, aerobic exercise every week, or 75 minutes a week of high intensity exercise. People should exercise on at least 5 days of the week. Examples of suitable activities are walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming.

Medication: People can use specific medications to treat hypertension. Doctors will often recommend a low dose at first. Antihypertensive medications will usually only have minor side effects. Eventually, people with hypertension will need to combine two or more drugs to manage their blood pressure.  Anyone on antihypertensive medications should carefully read the labels of any over-the-counter (OTC) drugs they may also take, such as decongestants. These OTC drugs may interact with the medications they are taking to lower their blood pressure.

Diet: People can prevent high blood pressure by following a heart-healthy diet. Reducing salt intake is one way; People’s average salt intake is between 9 grams (g) and 12 g per day in most countries around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend reducing intake to under 5 grams to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems. Lowering salt intake can benefit people both with and without hypertension.


Speak to your Friendly RingPharm Pharmacist:

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Clean Your Hands global campaign, launched in 2009 and celebrated annually ) aims to maintain global promotion, visibility and sustainability of hand hygiene in health care and to ‘bring people together’ in support of hand hygiene improvement around the world.

Hand hygiene is a simple, low cost, evidence-based intervention that can help protect your health and the health of others.

For World Hand Hygiene Day 2021, WHO calls on health care workers and facilities to achieve effective hand hygiene action at the point of care. The point of care refers to the place where three elements come together: the patient, the health care worker, and care or treatment involving contact with the patient or their surroundings. To be effective and prevent transmission of infectious microorganisms during health care delivery, hand hygiene should be performed when it is needed (at 5 specific moments) and in the most effective way (by using the right technique with readily available products) at the point of care. This can be achieved by using the WHO multi-modal hand hygiene improvement strategy.

Each year the SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign aims to progress the goal of maintaining a global profile on the importance of hand hygiene in health care and to ‘bring people together’ in support of hand hygiene improvement globally.

About SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands brings people together in support of hand hygiene improvement globally and to progress the goal of maintaining a global profile on hand hygiene in health care. The campaign aims to galvanise action at the point of care to demonstrate that hand hygiene is the entrance door for reducing health care-associated infection and patient safety. It also aims to demonstrate the world’s commitment to this priority area of health care.

As part of a major global effort to improve hand hygiene in health care, led by WHO to support health-care workers, the SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands annual global campaign was launched in 2009 and was a natural extension of the WHO First Global Patient Safety Challenge: Clean Care is Safer Care work which is now WHO IPC global unit.The central core of SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands is that all health-care workers should clean their hands at the right time and in the right way.

Hand Hygiene is one of the most effective actions to reduce the spread of pathogens and prevent infections, including the COVID-19 virus.


Speak to your Friendly RingPharm Pharmacist:

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Join this turquoise campaign and demonstrate that the elderly in our country are not forgotten! We have just over 2.75 million older people in our country, of which 1 million are already over the age of 75. Unfortunately, older people are often seen as soft targets for crime, abuse, exploitation, and neglect.

This situation must be stopped. South Africans will have to be taught to treat the elderly with respect, love, patience and human dignity. A new awareness has to be created among our people about the plight of our elderly and about what individuals, families, businesses and organisations can do to make the world a better place for the elderly. You can help!

The awareness campaign called “Turn turquoise for the elderly” will run from 15 May (International Family Day) to 15 June (World Elderly Abuse Awareness Day).

The campaign is now recognised in the national list of awareness days. Its purpose is two-fold:

·         Create awareness about the elderly in our communities, especially those not accommodated by institutions for the elderly, thus being more at risk.

·         Give organisations, homes for the aged, congregations, etc an opportunity to generate funds for support of the elderly.

The campaign is geared towards creating awareness about the elderly in our communities, especially those not accommodated by institutions for the elderly, thus being more at risk.

We encourage you to support elderly care facilities in your area. Here are some ways you can make a difference.

·         Tie a turquoise ribbon in front of your home or office during 15 May – 15 June to help raise awareness for the “Go turquoise for the elderly” campaign. Tell your friends and family about the campaign and encourage them to tie a turquoise ribbon too.

·         Make a friend. Enquire about elderly people in your community who might not have family and friends who supports them. Contact them, whatsapp, or visit them when Covid-19 protocol permits it.

·         Donate. Help keep our elder’s minds sharp, support your nearest old age home by donating novels, puzzles, art and craft supplies.

·         Start a Hobby or host an event. Do you have a skill you would like to share? Start an arts and craft group, a book club, a dance, spa day, host a baking day or start a bingo evening. Talk to your nearest old age home and learn what their needs are.

·         Support facilities who care for the elderly: Caring for an elderly person takes a lot of resources, especially now during Covid, when strict protocols are in place. Support your nearest old age home by donating toiletries, food, clothes, adult nappies, masks, gloves, and sanitizers.

 “Older persons are important to any society and nation, but their contribution can only be fully realized if they maintain their health and if barriers that prevent their engagement in family and community life are broken down.”  Let us all work towards a community where elders feel valued and respected.


Talk to your friendly RingPharm Pharmacist

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Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following injuries or surgery. Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help to stop bleeding. People with hemophilia have low levels of either factor VIII (8) or factor IX (9). The severity of hemophilia that a person has is determined by the amount of factor in the blood. The lower the amount of the factor, the more likely it is that bleeding will occur which can lead to serious health problems.


In rare cases, a person can develop haemophilia later in life.  The majority of cases involve middle-aged or elderly people, or young women who have recently given birth or are in the later stages of pregnancy.  This condition often resolves with appropriate treatment.

Haemophilia is caused by a mutation or change, in one of the genes, that provides instructions for making the clotting factor proteins needed to form a blood clot. This change or mutation can prevent the clotting protein from working properly or to be missing altogether. These genes are located on the X chromosome. Males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY) and females have two X chromosomes (XX). Males inherit the X chromosome from their mothers and the Y chromosome from their fathers. Females inherit one X chromosome from each parent.

Males can have a disease like haemophilia if they inherit an affected X chromosome that has a mutation in either the factor VIII or factor IX gene. Females can also have haemophilia, but this is much rarer.

Even though hemophilia runs in families, some families have no prior history of family members with hemophilia. Sometimes, there are carrier females in the family, but no affected boys, just by chance. However, about one-third of the time, the baby with hemophilia is the first one in the family to be affected with a mutation in the gene for the clotting factor.

Hemophilia can result in:

: Bleeding within joints that can lead to chronic joint disease and pain; Bleeding in the head and sometimes in the brain which can cause long term problems, such as seizures and paralysis; Death can occur if the bleeding cannot be stopped or if it occurs in a vital organ such as the brain. Hemophilia occurs in about 1 of every 5,000 male births.

The best way to treat hemophilia is to replace the missing blood clotting factor so that the blood can clot properly. This is done by infusing (administering through a vein) commercially prepared factor concentrates. People with hemophilia can learn how to perform these infusions themselves so that they can stop bleeding episodes and, by performing the infusions on a regular basis (called prophylaxis), can even prevent most bleeding episodes.

Ask your Pharmacist:

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Wearing a mask, maintaining a safe distance from others and washing your hands frequently are going remain important in 2021. But don’t forget to prioritize a healthy lifestyle that improves your overall health and quality of life, and helps prevent cancer.

Eat a healthy diet and watch your weight. For cancer prevention, the American Institute for Cancer Research and the American Cancer Society recommend maintaining a healthy weight, staying active and eating a healthy diet.

That’s one rich in whole grains, vegetables, fruit and beans, with a minimum of red and processed meats, fast food and processed foods high in fat, starches or sugars. Avoid sugary drinks.

Cutting out alcohol lowers the risk of many cancers, including breast cancer and exercise regularly. It has many benefits for physical and mental well-being.

Current guidelines recommend at least 150 to 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 to 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Muscle-strengthening activities should also be included. Sitting for a long time watching TV or using the computer is discouraged.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Quitting smoking will lower the risk for many cancers, including those of the lungs, mouth, throat, blood, bladder, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and kidneys. Getting preventive care is an important step to manage your health. This includes cancer screenings, which can detect cancer before it spreads.

The following tips are practical as well as important on how to be healthy daily:

Follow a Healthy Eating Plan

– You do not need to starve in order to eat healthier. You can still eat food you enjoy as long as you include plenty of healthy, not-too- processed foods. Such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, lean meats, seafood, beans, and nuts.

Make Water & Tea your Default Drink – Many people drink soda or sugar coffee drinks all day. This is not necessary for a healthy or enjoyable life. Water can become your favorite drink, and unsweetened tea can be very healthy.

Wash you Fruits and Vegetable – They could be contaminated with harmful bacteria from the water or soil in which the produce was grown. Rinse fruits or scrub them well under running water. Even if you peel your vegetables and fruits, you should wash them beforehand — the more careful you are, the fewer your chances are of getting food poisoning.

Cook your Food Thoroughly – Fully cooking meat, eggs and seafood kills bacteria and helps eliminate the risk of catching food-borne illnesses, like salmonella or shigella, that are not only unpleasant but can also be downright dangerous — even life-threatening — if they become complicated.

Drink Red Wine – One or two glasses of red wine can be very healthy, and can add some pleasure to your new healthy lifeyle.

Start taking Vitamins – Many people lack of vitamins simply because they do not eat what is necessary for them. For example people who are not fond of fruits might need vitamin C. Furthermore people that are lactose intolerance need vitamin B.


Related Product: Vital Multivitamin

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can look different in different people. It’s a developmental disability that affects the way people communicate, behave, or interact with others. There’s no single cause for it, and symptoms can be very mild or very severe.

Some children who are on the spectrum start showing signs as young as a few months old. Others seem to have normal development for the first few months or years of their lives and then they start showing symptoms.

Autism is not a disability it is a different ability

But up to half of parents of children with ASD noticed issues by the time their child reached 12 months, and between 80% and 90% noticed problems by 2 years. Children with ASD will have symptoms throughout their lives, but it’s possible for them to get better as they get older.

The autism spectrum is very wide. Some people might have very noticeable issues, others might not. The common thread is differences in social skills, communication, and behaviour compared with people who aren’t on the spectrum.

If your child is on the spectrum, they might show some social symptoms by the time they’re 8 to 10 months old. These may include any of the following: They don’t respond to their name by their first birthday; Playing, sharing, or talking with other people doesn’t interest them; They prefer to be alone; They avoid or reject physical contact; They avoid eye contact; When they’re upset, they don’t like to be comforted; They don’t understand emotions — their own or others’; They may not stretch out their arms to be picked up or guided with walking.

About 40% of children with autism spectrum disorders don’t talk at all, and between 25% and 30% develop some language skills during infancy but then lose them later. Some children with ASD start talking later in life. Spotting Signs and Symptoms The earlier treatment for autism spectrum disorder begins, the more like it is to be effective. That’s why knowing how to identify the signs and symptoms is so important.

Make an appointment with your child’s paediatrician if they don’t meet these specific developmental milestones, or if they meet but lose them later on: Smiles by 6 months; Imitates facial expressions or sounds by 9 months; Coos or babbles by 12 months; Gestures (points or waves) by 14 months; Speaks with single words by 16 months and uses phrases of two words or more by 24 months; Plays pretend or “make-believe” by 18 months

Source: KK Publishers

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TUBERCULOSIS – the painful truth

A total of 1.4 million people died from Tuberculosis last year (including 208 000 people with HIV). Worldwide, TB is one of the top 10 causes of death and the leading cause from a single infectious agent (above HIV/AIDS). In 2019, an estimated 10 million people fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. 5.6 million men, 3.2 million women and 1.2 million children. TB is present in all countries and age groups. But TB is curable and preventable. In 2019, 1.2 million children fell ill with TB globally. Child and adolescent TB is often overlooked by health providers and can be difficult to diagnose and treat.

In 2019, the 30 high TB burden countries accounted for 87% of new TB cases. Eight countries account for two thirds of the total, with India leading the count, followed by Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and South Africa.

Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) remains a public health crisis and a health security threat. A global total of 206 030 people with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) were detected and notified in 2019, a 10% increase from 186 883 in 2018. An estimated 60 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment between 2000 and 2019.

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected.

About one-quarter of the world’s population has a TB infection, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with the disease and cannot transmit it. People infected with TB bacteria have a 5–15% lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. Those with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a higher risk of falling ill.

When a person develops active TB disease, the symptoms (such as cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) may be mild for many months. This can lead to delays in seeking care, and results in transmission of the bacteria to others. People with active TB can infect 5–15 other people through close contact over the course of a year. Without proper treatment, 45% of HIV-negative people with TB on average and nearly all HIV-positive people with TB will die.

People who are infected with HIV are 18 times more likely to develop active TB (see TB and HIV section below). The risk of active TB is also greater in persons suffering from other conditions that impair the immune system. People with undernutrition are 3 times more at risk. Globally in 2019, there were 2.2 million new TB cases in 2018 that were attributable to undernutrition.

TB is a treatable and curable disease. Active, drug-susceptible TB disease is treated with a standard 6-month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer. Without such support, treatment adherence is more difficult. Since 2000, an estimated 63 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment. People living with HIV are 18 (15-21) times more likely to develop active TB disease than people without HIV.

The spread of Tuberculosis

Source: KK Publishers

Ask your Friendly RingPharm Pharmacist

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What Is Heartburn? 3 important facts you need to know.

What Is Heartburn?

Heartburn is an irritation of the oesophagus — the tube that connects your throat and stomach. It’s caused by stomach acid. This leads to a burning discomfort in your upper belly or below your breastbone.

Despite its name, heartburn has nothing to do with the heart.

But some of the symptoms are similar to those of a heart attack or heart disease: a burning sensation behind your sternum, or breastbone, in the middle of your chest.

You might also feel it in your throat. You may also feel pain in your chest when you bend over or lie down, or have a hot, acidic, bitter, or salty taste in the back of your throat.

What Is Heartburn?

Heartburn tips

Heartburn symptoms can start up because of a problem with a muscular valve called the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). It’s located where the oesophagus meets the stomach — below the rib cage and slightly left of centre.

Normally, with the help of gravity, the LES keeps stomach acid right where it should be — in your stomach. When it’s working right, the LES opens to allow food into your stomach or to let you belch, then closes again. But if the LES opens too often or doesn’t close tightly enough, stomach acid can seep into the oesophagus and cause a burning sensation.

If your LES doesn’t tighten as it should, there are often two things that contribute to the problem. One is overeating, which puts too much food in your stomach. Another is too much pressure on your stomach, often due to obesity, pregnancy, or constipation.

Certain foods can relax your LES or increase stomach acid, including: Tomatoes; Citrus fruits; Garlic and onions; Chocolate; Coffee or caffeinated products; Alcohol; Peppermint.

Meals high in fats and oils (animal or vegetable) often lead to heartburn, as do certain medications. Stress and lack of sleep can raise how much acid your stomach makes and can cause heartburn.

Ask your pharmacisit for advice.

Related Products.

Source: KK Publishers.