Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small “packages” of genes in the body. They determine how a baby’s body forms during pregnancy and how the baby’s body functions as it grows in the womb and after birth. Typically, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes.
Babies with Down syndrome have an extra copy of one of these chromosomes, chromosome 21. This extra copy changes how the baby’s body and brain develop, which can cause both mental and physical challenges for the baby.
Even though people with this syndrome might act and look similar, each person has different abilities. These people usually have an IQ (a measure of intelligence) in the mildly-to-moderately low range and are slower to speak than other children.
Some common physical features of Down syndrome include:
A flattened face, especially the bridge of the nose; Almond-shaped eyes that slant up; A short neck; Small ears; A tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth; Small hands and feet; Poor muscle tone or loose joints; Shorter in height as children and adults
Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. Services early in life will often help babies and children to improve their physical and intellectual abilities. Most of these services focus on helping children with Down syndrome develop to their full potential. These services include speech, occupational, and physical therapy, and they are typically offered through early intervention programs in each state. Children with Down syndrome may also need extra help or attention in school, although many children are included in regular classes.
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When your nose is blocked, pressure starts to build and build making your head feel heavy. It can make it hard to think straight; even the simplest things require more effort.
Nasal congestion is a blockage within the nasal passages which results in the pressure build-up that leads to the ‘Heavy Head’ effect. Congestion can be caused by sinusitis, colds, flu and allergies.
Sinutab® Nasal Spray is an effective decongestant in that it not only relieves a blocked nose, but also alleviates various other head cold symptoms such as pressure and swelling. Sinutab® Nasal Spray unblocks your nose fast, relieving the pressure and clearing your head cold within 2 minutes1 and lasts for up to 10 hours2, so you can get back to normal.
Heart disease is the No. 1 cause of death worldwide, and it’s mostly preventable by changing your lifestyle and managing risk factors.
7 ways to improve heart health and prevent becoming a statistic:
1. Get moving, Your heart is a muscle and, as with any muscle, exercise is what strengthens it. The first step is to determine your target heart rate, then find an activity you enjoy and can stick with for the long run.
2. Quit smoking. Quitting smoking is tough. But you know that it’s important to quit, and one of the biggest reasons is that it’s linked to heart disease and bad heart health.
3. Lose weight. Losing weight is more than just diet and exercise. It’s a personal journey that involves finding what you like and what works for you.
4. Eat heart-healthy foods. Salmon and guacamole are loaded with healthy fats in moderation that are good for heart health.
5. Don’t forget the chocolate. The good news: chocolate and wine contribute to heart health. The bad news: only in moderation. Alcohol and cocoa (a key ingredient in chocolate) have antioxidants that have been shown to increase good cholesterol, lower bad cholesterol and improve blood clotting function.
6. Don’t overeat. Although this advice primarily applies during the holidays, when deaths from heart attacks spike thanks to copious amounts of food and temptation, it’s valid year round. Eating a lot of food at once leads to: Blood shifting from the heart to the digestive system; Faster and irregular heart rhythms, which can lead to heart attack or heart failure.
7. Don’t stress. There are more than 1,400 biochemical responses to stress, including a rise in blood pressure and a faster heart rate. If you don’t manage your stress, it can create more stress and trap you in a stress cycle.
Pharmacists today are emerging as key players on your health care team. Hundreds of years ago, people went to the pharmacy or apothecary for medical care.
By the 1900s, their role was mostly counting pills. But that’s changed.
Pharmacy programs at universities today are 5-year programs, and the new material aspiring pharmacists learn includes helping people manage their health and by looking at the whole person.
Here are six ways your pharmacist can help you stay healthy.
Convenient vaccines. These include flu shots as well as vaccines for pneumonia – often, you don’t even need an appointment.
Help with pill bottles and dispensers. If needed, ask your pharmacist to put your medications into easy-to-open containers (if there are no children in your home) with large-print labels. They may also be able to fill your pill dispenser for you or package medications you take regularly into daily packs so you won’t miss a dose.
Easier refills. If you take multiple medications, your pharmacist can help you get them on the same refill schedule so that you can make fewer trips to the pharmacy.
Affordable alternatives. Talk with your pharmacist right away if a medication costs too much. He or she may be able to substitute a generic prescription or call your doctor to find another option.
Consultations for chronic health conditions. While your doctor is the expert about your condition—diagnosing, developing a treatment plan and evaluating your health—your pharmacist is the medication expert who can sit down with you and discuss what your medicines do and how to take them for best results.
Advice about over-the-counter remedies and supplements. Thinking about a new natural remedy or a vitamin or mineral supplement? Ask if it could interact with medications you’re already taking. It may be fine, or you may need a different dose or a different product, or you may be better off not taking it, so you’ll have peace of mind.
Digestive system problems such as heartburn, gas, bloating and constipation reflect what’s happening throughout your body and is an indicator of your gut health.
The main drivers of a healthy digestive system change are shifts in stomach acid, gut immunity, and gastrointestinal flora—the complex ecosystem of bacteria in your digestive system. When gut health is good, you’re less likely to experience damaging inflammation and lapses in immunity.
The following ways to improve your digestive system may sound surprising because they’re not just about diet.
5 Ways to improve gut health
Eat the right foods. A balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables provides the fiber that builds good bacteria and gut health. Other foods that build a healthy digestive system include yogurt and other fermented or pickled foods such pickled ginger.
Get more sleep. Not getting enough sleep is linked to a higher prevalence of obesity, which sets you up for digestive system disorders.
Move more.As with other aspects of health, exercise is the best way to lose weight and maintain a healthy body weight to ward off digestive system problems.
Manage stress.Reducing stress is fundamental to reducing heartburn. There’s no magic diet that works. Try relaxation therapies along with discussing relevant medication with your pharmacist.
Get help for issues like anxiety and depression.Mood and digestive system health (especially disorders like irritable bowel syndrome) are closely linked via the brain-gut connection.
Experts say some signs can be tip-offs that you might have had the disease already.
Here are the top ones to know if you had Covid-19, plus what it means for immunity:
You had a “bad cold.” It can be tough to distinguish a cold from a mild form of COVID-19 without a test, depending on which symptoms you experience, but colds don’t typically cause shortness of breath, severe headaches, or gastrointestinal symptoms like COVID-19 can.
You lost your sense of smell or taste at one point. Loss of smell and taste has been a big hallmark of COVID-19. While this symptom doesn’t occur for everyone, it’s now strongly linked with this coronavirus in COVID-19 patients who lost their sense of smell, 27% had “some improvement” within about seven days, while most were better within 10 days.
You feel breathless sometimes. Research has found that people with COVID-19 can have after-effects of the virus, including shortness of breath. It’s not entirely clear why at this point or how long this can last, but it’s likely due to lasting inflammation in the lungs.
You have a cough that will not go away.A lingering cough is another symptom that people who participated in a recent study reported. The cough is often dry, meaning that nothing comes up, like like phlegm or mucus,
You’re really, really tired. This is one of the biggest lingering effects after a person has had the disease. Research found that 53% of patients said they were struggling with fatigue around 60 days after they first showed signs of the virus.
You have unusual symptoms that seem to be lasting forever. If you’ve been feeling off and your symptoms are persistent, it’s a good idea to get checked out by your health professional , whether you think it’s related to COVID-19 or not.
The term hay fever is a misnomer: the condition is not caused by hay, nor does it produce fever. The clinical name is seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is a type of allergy.
In some people the immune system is overactive and identifies normally harmless particles as dangerous, producing an excessive reaction. This reaction results in the release of powerful chemical agents of which histamine is the best known.
These substances cause very severe swelling of the mucous membrane lining the nasal passages and conjunctiva of the eyes, intense itching and sneezing and the production of large amounts of watery mucus.
A person may have any or all of the following hay fever symptoms:
Severe bouts of sneezing, especially in the morning;
Intense itching of the nose and of the palate and even the ear canals;
Watery nasal mucus; Stuffy nose all the time or during specific seasons;
Itchy and teary eyes;
Eyes are sensitive to light;
Reddened, pebbly lining in the lower eyelids;
Dark circles under the eyes as a result of pressure from blocked nasal passages on the small blood vessels;
Headaches because of pressure from inside the nose or from the sinus canals being blocked and a negative pressure-sinus headache;
Nasal blockage associated with headache, persistent dripping at the back of the throat, and bad breath, suggests chronic sinusitis rather than rhinitis.
Allergens which cause hay fever are the pollens of grass, trees and a few weed species, all of which are wind-pollinated. It is only the small, light wind-borne pollens which cause the allergic reaction in the nose. Allergic rhinitis that occurs all year round is mainly caused by house dust mite, animals and moulds.
It is impossible to avoid the allergens which cause this form of rhinitis, e.g., grass pollens, so medical treatment is unavoidable in most cases. Speak to your pharmacist about the most appropriate treatment for you. Treatment for hay fever almost always includes antihistamine tablets and antihistamine nasal sprays and steroid sprays.
1. Zap your stress. Stress can have significant women health consequences, from infertility to higher risks of depression, anxiety, and heart disease. Find the stress-reduction method that works for you and stick with it.
2. Stop dieting. “Eating healthy doesn’t mean you have to forgo your favourite glass of wine or a piece of chocolate cake now and then. The key is moderation. Get a mix of lean proteins, healthy fats, smart carbs, and fibre.”
3. Don’t “OD” on calcium. “Too much absorbed calcium can increase the risk of kidney stones. If you’re under 50, shoot for 1,000 milligrams per day, while over-50 women should be getting 1,200 milligrams per day mainly through diet — about three servings of calcium-rich foods such as milk, salmon, and almonds per week.”
4. Do more than cardio. Women need a mix of cardio and resistance or weight-bearing exercise at least three to five times a week to help prevent osteoporosis, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. “Exercise also promotes good self-image, which is really important to a woman’s mental health.”
5. Appreciate birth control. “Birth control often gets bad publicity, but not only can it keep you from getting pregnant before you’re ready, studies show it can lower the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer as well as regulate your cycle.”
6. See your doctor every year. Make sure you get a Pap test to check for cervical cancer every 3 years if you are 21 or older. If you are 30-65, you can get both a Pap test and HPV test every 5 years. If you are sexually active and have a higher risk for STDs, get tests for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis yearly. “Don’t skip your yearly check-up. Your doctor needs to annually assess many other issues such as potential infection, your need for contraception, and sexual complaints.”
7. Get more sleep. “Sleep needs differ, but if you have trouble getting out of bed, tire easily, or have trouble concentrating, you likely aren’t getting enough. Recent studies suggest this can put you at greater risk of heart disease and psychological problems.” Healthier sleeping patterns can increase overall women health.
8. Consider genetic testing. Your gynaecologist can now screen women health with a family history of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and chronic diseases to assess their risk — and then consider preventive measures.
Breastfeeding is the cornerstone of infant and young child survival, nutrition and development and maternal health. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive it for the first 6 months of life, followed by continued feeding with appropriate complementary foods for up to 2 years and beyond. Early and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact, rooming-in and kangaroo mother care also significantly improve neonatal survival and reduce morbidity and are recommended by WHO.
However, concerns have been raised about whether mothers with COVID-19 can transmit the SARS-CoV-2 virus to their infant or young child through breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding and infectious diseases:
Breastfeeding is particularly effective against infectious diseases because it strengthens the immune system by directly transferring antibodies from the mother. As with all confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, mothers with any symptoms who are this or practicing skin-to-skin contact should take precautions.
Actions for mothers: Practice respiratory hygiene, including during feeding. If you have respiratory symptoms such as being short of breath, use a medical mask when near your child.
Wash your hands thoroughly with soap or sanitizer before and after contact with your child. Routinely clean and disinfect any surfaces you touch. If you are severely ill with COVID-19 or suffer from other complications that prevent you from caring for your infant or continuing direct breastfeeding, express milk to safely provide breast milk to your infant.